Controllers for brushless motors: E-bikes require high initial torque and therefore models that use brushless motors typically have Hall sensor commutation for speed and angle measurement. An electronic controller provides assistance as a function of the sensor inputs, the vehicle speed and the required force. The controllers generally allow input by means of potentiometer or Hall Effect twist grip (or thumb-operated lever throttle), closed-loop speed control for precise speed regulation, protection logic for over-voltage, over-current and thermal protection. Bikes with a pedal assist function typically have a disc on the crank shaft featuring a ring of magnets coupled with a Hall sensor giving rise to a series of pulses, the frequency of which is proportional to pedaling speed. The controller uses pulse width modulation to regulate the power to the motor. Sometimes support is provided for regenerative braking but infrequent braking and the low mass of bicycles limits recovered energy. An implementation is described in an application note for a 200 W, 24 V Brushless DC (BLDC) motor.[43]
Electric bikes are a green alternative to driving a vehicle. Studies carried out in several towns and cities show that the average car speed in rush hour traffic can dip as low as 18 to 20 mph. Electric bike speed can be as high as 15 mph. With an electric bike, you can reduce pollution, improve fitness, and still arrive at the same time as your car-bound colleagues.
Commencal has only just recently entered the electric mountain bike market, and their Meta Power Race 650B+ is a well designed and hard-charging contender, the winner of our Top Pick for Aggressive Riders Award. Commencal has integrated the Shimano Steps E8000 pedal assist motor into their proven Meta frame design, creating a bike that climbs well and also charges downhill. This bike comes to life at speed downhill thanks to a progressive long and slack geometry and a great component spec which is highlighted by a stout Rock Shox Lyrik fork and a plush Super Deluxe Coil rear shock. The Meta Power Race took top honors for its climbing performance, mostly due to the Shimano Steps E8000's consistent power output and extended power band, and testers also loved its e-bike controls, with an ergonomic shifter, best-in-test digital display, and user-friendly charging connection.
Older Americans, especially those 65+ are the real drivers of electric bike adoption in the United States. Betty and Grady Smith of Beaumont Texas may not know it but they are the driving demographic for electric bicycles and  tricycles. Both in thier eighties, the couple enjoys riding thier Worksman electric side-by-side tricycle around town. As a business offering electric bike and trike conversion systems since 2008, we've gotten to know...
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E-bikes can also provide a source of exercise for individuals who have trouble exercising for an extended time (due to injury or excessive weight, for example) as the bike can allow the rider to take short breaks from pedaling and also provide confidence to the rider that they'll be able to complete the selected path without becoming too fatigued[58] or without having forced their knee joints too hard (people who need to use their knee joints without wearing them out unnecessarily may in some electric bikes adjust the level of motor assistance according to the terrain). A University of Tennessee study provides evidence that energy expenditure (EE) and oxygen consumption (VO2) for e-bikes are 24% lower than that for conventional bicycles, and 64% lower than for walking. Further, the study notes that the difference between e-bikes and bicycles are most pronounced on the uphill segments.[59] Reaching VO2 Max, can really help your body as a whole[60]. Professor Janet Lord of Birmingham University in the UK published a study that looked at older cyclists, ““The study looked at muscle mass, blood cholesterol, their VO2 Max, lung function, and in many of those measures we found they didn’t age! No loss of muscle, their bones were a little thin (but nothing like the general population), their blood pressure didn’t go up.[61]
I saw an early version of the Carbo and was impressed. Although it looked thin and flimsy — the entire frame looks like you can bend it on a bad curb — it was very resilient and withstood my urban abuse. There are multiple modes, including Sport, which takes you almost immediately up to about 20 miles an hour with pedal assist, a great feeling. The battery is hidden inside the seat post and can be swapped out.
It is important to note that the less power you use while riding your e-bike, the longer the battery will last, makes sense right? All of the pedal-assist drive units we tested also have smartphone apps that can be used to customize your support settings, and such changes may allow for more or less range on your electric mountain bike. Specialized's Mission Control app has a feature that lets you set a predetermined route, and the app then regulates the motor's support to ensure power lasts to finish your ride.
Not the best bike but good for what it is. 250watt. not enough power even for small hills on its own and does not do 15/hr even on flat ground. battery looses power when cold but still works. Over all so far, dispite the above I give it 4 stars because it is what you would excpect in a cheap bike and it does work. There is no braket for the headlight tho so be warned you will have to improvise on that.
The Moterra is Cannondale’s biggest and baddest e-mtb and just looking at this thing you can see that it’s built to withstand some wicked downhills and big drops. With 130mm of front and rear travel, paired up with 27.5-inch wheels and trail-grabbing 2.8-inch tires, along with a KS LEV Integra Dropper Post make this pedal-assist mountain bike a great option if you want to climb farther to shred longer, but don’t want to lug your bike uphill for ages. The 250w motor, placed slightly farther forward than most other bikes to optimize weight distribution and handling, will give you a nice boost so you can enjoy the ride up and not be too gassed when you get to the top. After all, it’s all about the ride down, right?
We rode the Vado through the gauntlet, including some of the steepest hills in Palo Alto, and it easily handled everything we threw at it, maintaining a steady 20 miles per hour even on the most daunting of ascents. The bike also handles well on downhills and is both nimble and quick on city streets and paved trails. It’s even comfortable to ride for extended distances, which is vitally important for any bike built for urban settings.
Two years worth of research and development may seem like a long time for a mountain bike but when you take a closer look at what Rogue Ridge accomplished in that time period we’re confident you’ll appreciate the work. For instance, each offering hosts a best-in-class 1000-watt motor and 13 amp hour battery to help keep this electric fat bike at the ready whenever you are. Also, with said set of fat tires, any terrain from sand to mud; rocks to snow, is within your grasp. Additional features include a full-color digital display, a range of 29 miles without pedaling, and a tech welded 6061 aluminum alloy frame among many others.

Shell Eco-Marathon Americas Competition 2015 1st and 2nd Place Winners Both Used an Electric Bike Technologies Hub Motor! The Mater Dei Supermileage 3 Team of Mater Dei High School, in Evansville, Ind., took the top spot in the Battery-Electric Prototype category. The team built a vehicle using an electric bike motor from Electric Bike Technologies USA and won the electric plug in class at the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 Shell Eco-Marathon Americas. They...
On a trip to Palo Alto last year, we had the chance to ride Specialized’s pedal-assisted Turbo Vado and the model is still our favorite ebike on the market. Utilizing a 350-watt motor and 604-watt-hour lithium-ion battery, the Turbo Vado is capable of traveling a whopping 80 miles on a single charge, which should be more than enough for any daily commute with plenty of miles left over.
The box looked rough. Lots of little digs and dents. When I opened the box, the contents were very well packed. Mine did show that it took a good hit to the headset stem as the spacers where shoved and the clear tape was all bunched up and the one spacer was almost at the edge. After taking the tape off, cleaning all the tape residue off everything went together super easy. I used the included multi tool to do most of the assembly. I just needed a wrench for the peddles.
I have been mountain biking since the late 1980s, when all I could afford was an entry-level Bridgestone MB-5 on my strapped college budget. Over the years, I’ve explored up and down the mountains of Washington and Oregon in search of the best singletrack. The bikes changed but our passion ebbed not. When I co-founded Trails.com in the late 1990s, mountain biking was still one of my top outdoor pursuits. Our employees were outdoors nuts as well and biking was simply a part of life.

Shell Eco-Marathon Americas Competition 2015 1st and 2nd Place Winners Both Used an Electric Bike Technologies Hub Motor! The Mater Dei Supermileage 3 Team of Mater Dei High School, in Evansville, Ind., took the top spot in the Battery-Electric Prototype category. The team built a vehicle using an electric bike motor from Electric Bike Technologies USA and won the electric plug in class at the 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 Shell Eco-Marathon Americas. They...
Having a motor bolted to the bottom of a mountain bike that provides pedal assistance is an amazing leveller. The constant torque it applies to the chain rounds out the squarest of pedalling actions, which in turn helps stabilizes the rear suspension and counter pedal induced bob, seamlessly shifting your focus from pedalling efficiency to battery life.
For those who may be unfamiliar, Burning Man is an annual gathering in the Black Rock Desert of Black Rock City, Nevada. The event, which began in 1986, spans from the last Sunday in August to the first Monday in September. There are no corporate sponsorships, advertisements, or entertainment at the event. Individual participation is what's key to making the event special and memorable. Although the participants are given a...
Every major bike manufacturer—and literally dozens of smaller ones—is already in the e-bike game. Car companies aren’t far behind. Ford is already bankrolling an electric bike-share system in San Francisco, and plenty of others are eyeing up the e-bike market. “The car business is jumping in with both feet,” Benjamin says, “because they realize that cars in high-density urban areas, where more than half the human race lives, just aren’t working anymore.” With big transportation players like Uber looking into e-bikes, and cities searching for ways to relieve traffic congestion, programs may only continue to expand.
**The eBike uses a quick-release battery system. Lightweight 200Wh Lithium-ion battery packs can be swapped in seconds at the roadside. Each pack weighs just 1.4Kg, so spare battery packs can easily be carried for longer trips. The range that can be achieved from each pack will vary according to the conditions and effort exerted by the rider. Ranges of around 30 miles are normal per each full eBike battery charge. Less fit riders may achieve ranges of 10 miles or less, particularly in challenging conditions like steep hills, strong head-winds or soft terrain. The conditions which affect the range are rider fitness, weight, size and seating position, head or tail winds, gradient, terrain, tyre pressure, what gear is used, number of stop/starts and the speed the bike is ridden.

The seat is a long, tapering bench-style saddle common to this genre of e-bike. The design allows the same size frame to fit multiple sized riders. While it’s not quite the same as having a fully adjustable frame, e-bikes don’t require the same precision fitment due to their electric assist. When you’re using the bike like a motorcycle, you just kind of sit wherever is comfortable.
A low-mounted motor keeps the centre of gravity low and the entire system compact, while allowing for ultra-short chainstays and a bottom bracket that is integral to the frame. We use a high efficiency, three-phase brushless motor to provide class-leading torque and ultra quiet operation. To get instant power response on trail, we put the torque sensor between the chainring and the drive gear, and our 48v battery voltage allows for super fast charging.

A couple of days ago I went out with my 16yo son on our regular bikes. I soon realized that I can, at 52, no longer keep up with him and pushed myself way beyond what I should have. When we got home I seriously thought I was going to have a heart attack and had to lie down. I was very upset as it dawned on me that as my son got faster and faster I would get slower and slower and that meant I would hold him back on our rides. I decided to investigate and went online to see what was available to help me. I had never heard of Pedego but on a search a Pedego store came up that was a few miles from my home in Fort Worth, TX. I called and spoke to owner Vicky. I asked what time the store stayed open till and she said 5pm. I said j worked until 5pm and she immediately volunteered to stay open later for me to go down to the store. I arrived at 5.30pm and by 5.45pm after a test ride I had purchased my brand new Ridge Rider!! WOW! What a spectacular machine! I drove home perhaps a tad faster than I should have and my son and I went out for a ride. We did the same ride from a couple of days earlier and although I broke a sweat I got back home and felt great! Thanks to the amazing torque of the APS and buttery smooth gear changes I managed all the hills and slopes with ease and saved the flats for actual pedaling under my own steam. Thanks Pedego, you might just have saved my life!!
When I started looking beyond the legal regulations, I discovered something that further disturbed me: the mountain biking community is predominantly anti-eBike and quite vocal about it. Maybe it’s a minority that is louder online, but either way, I was shocked to see that mountain bikers and mountain bike organizations, such as International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA), are against sharing the trails with eBikes. While some of the online community spoke up in favor of eBikes, they were outnumbered by hardliners.
Where in the fitness manual does it say that getting fit has to mean suffering? Nope, being active is getting the heart rate up and keeping the mojo high. The Crossroads is your key to weeknight workouts and rides with the family, offering a refreshing change from treadmills and dumbbells. And with the benefits of a Body Geometry saddle and grips, it's one bike that’ll keep you riding with a face that says 'joy' more than 'suffering.'
Built by a company that’s made cycling equipment for more than four decades, the Vado feels more like a traditional bicycle than almost any other ebike. Its frame and components have been tuned to provide a familiar experience, making it easy for new and long-time cyclists to jump on and start pedaling. Specialized’s heritage shines through nicely, helping separate itself from the competition in an increasingly crowded ebike market.

Yes, there are less expensive ebikes on the market but most come with a few serious caveats. The Espin Sport delivers on the full promise of an electric bike, but in a more affordable fashion. This bike isn’t going to tow you around for a 60-mile round-trip endeavor but those seeking their first ebike will get plenty of return on their investment with this model.
Riding position: You also may wish to check out an e-bike’s riding position before investing in it. For short trips, the riding position might not make much difference, but for long journeys, the upright "Dutch" style with pulled-back handlebars is very comfortable – particularly for tall riders. The same goes for mountain bike styles, though these bikes are not often designed to actually go off-road.
Yukon Trails Outback Electric Mountain Bike is an affordable urban bike with a 24 volt motor of 250 watts. The lead-acid battery of 10 AH offers 28 miles in a charge. This mountain bike is manufactured in China. The bike has the solid tires of 1.75 Watt and 24 inches. It reaches up to the speed of 15 MPH due to the rim of 24 inches. You can smoothly ride the bike while enjoying the fresh air. The seat is comfortable to sit for a long time.
Our twelve-person test team not only tested the most exciting eMTBs of the 2018 season in the cold German winter, but also took them to the south of France for two weeks (we will spare you the mandatory muddy photos at this point). We climbed to the top of peaks, rummaged through deep mud, rode over countless roots and ruts on the way up and even more on the way back down, laughed, cursed, lived through many unforgettable moments, and took the bikes – and sometimes ourselves – to the limit.
With its steep seat tube angle and powerful motor, the Rotwild E+ Ultra masters even the steepest climbs. Its high centre of gravity, however, negatively effects downhill handling. The GIANT FULL E+ 0 is a very solid eMTB where what you see is what you get, although the rather slack seat tube and bulbous-belly isn’t exactly pretty. Not so with the FOCUS SAM²: With its clean silhouette it is a bike for design lovers. But only if you get by with the small integrated battery. As soon as you mount an additional battery, not only the appearance suffers, but also the handling. The BMC Trailfox AMP has minor weaknesses in the componentry, finish and downhill handling – at a price of € 12,000 we expected considerably more. The Thömus Lightrider E1 fares better, it’s no bargain either, but the handling is outstanding. It’s a pity that the bike isn’t available outside of Switzerland. Another exotic specimen is the FANTIC XF1 Integra Enduro 160. The bike from the Italian motorcycle brand can’t deny its roots, tremendously composed and capable on the descents, though it cannot keep up with the competition when going back up – the 180 mm version of the Fantic is significantly better overall.
Older Americans, especially those 65+ are the real drivers of electric bike adoption in the United States. Betty and Grady Smith of Beaumont Texas may not know it but they are the driving demographic for electric bicycles and  tricycles. Both in thier eighties, the couple enjoys riding thier Worksman electric side-by-side tricycle around town. As a business offering electric bike and trike conversion systems since 2008, we've gotten to know...
Stark Drive has always included a front head light by default at no charge for safety with the rear brake light being optional for those who needed this. Now we have reconfigured the homepage so that the rear headlight options i clearly visible and availble without needing to compllicate matters by adding it from our accessories page. We highly recommend a rear brake light no matter what motor you choose for Stark Drive.
The distance range of an electric mountain bike refers to the distance you can travel on a single battery charge given a specific set of circumstances. All of the e-bikes we tested have roughly the same battery storage capacity, but outside variables like rider weight, pedaling input, terrain, trail conditions, and weather conditions may all affect the length of time or distance that a battery charge will last. To compare the distance range of the four models in our test we took the bikes out in their highest support setting and did out and back laps on the same trail until the batteries ran down from fully charged to completely dead. When we finished we recorded the distance and vertical gain that each model was able to complete and easily and objectively determined our winner.

The first functioning electric motor was displayed in the early 19th century, though the device constructed by British scientist Michael Faraday did little more than swirl a wire around a magnet when an electric charge was introduced. Still, the concept proved that electricity could do work. Functional electric motors would follow in many forms after that achievement in 1821. Soon scientists and tinkerers around the world, including visionaries such as Nikola Tesla, were experimenting with all manner of electric motors -- some worked with DC power, others with AC. By the end of the century, myriad electric motors had been produced, capable of exerting enough force with enough reliable control that they were practical for use in myriad applications.
TerraTrikes make great electric recumbent trikes. Here are a few how to tips for converting the Rover and Rambler models, specifically with internally geared hubs. The TerraTrike Rover and the rambler models both are offered with internally geared hubs. It is possible to convert the trike to external gearing, but you will probably want the help of a bike shop that is familiar with recumbents. For a good bike shop,...
TerraTrikes make great electric recumbent trikes. Here are a few how to tips for converting the Rover and Rambler models, specifically with internally geared hubs. The TerraTrike Rover and the rambler models both are offered with internally geared hubs. It is possible to convert the trike to external gearing, but you will probably want the help of a bike shop that is familiar with recumbents. For a good bike shop,...
You should be extra aware about your local regulations as in many countries an L1e-A certified bike needs to be registered and insured (be sure to consult your local laws and rules) and with registration comes the security that the bike can be tracked if it is stolen or misplaced. This approval that we have received is European Union wide and even those countries that are not part of the EU but rather EEA do adopt similar regulations in order to keep the market common but you will need to consult with your authorities. We will detail more about the registration process in an upcoming blog post but if you have any questions you can email us and we will respond in kind.
Many many thanks for your wonderful customer services, and a wonderful bike you had prepared for me.  Now, this bike becomes my physical therapy machine and a commuting transportation in the busy streets of San Francisco. Truly, the R15 upgrade is a very powerful e-bike.  I can practically say that this bike is a hybrid of motorcycle and bicycle.  The… Read more ““Just no comparison””

Those are our choices for the top eMTBs this year. There are loads of great options as battery life continues to improve and motors provide more assistance than ever before. Electric bikes are primed to move heavily this year. It’s the only bike market that continues to grow every year. The more units that sell, the better the bikes become. That’s great for consumers and the bike community in general!
As a household name, Specialized is to be trusted in this world without a doubt. That’s because, in addition to their inventory of pedal-powered machinery, they’ve gone ahead and introduced us to their S-Works Turbo. Here, in conjunction with their custom Trail-tuned motor for off-road use, the Levo FSR frame is constructed entirely of FACT 11m carbon fiber allowing for both a lightweight and stiff ride through the local wilderness. Additional features include instant engagement, heat management, and a silent output for good measure. Not bad Specialized. Not bad at all.
The two most common types of hub motors used in electric bicycles are brushed and brushless. Many configurations are available, varying in cost and complexity; direct-drive and geared motor units are both used. An electric power-assist system may be added to almost any pedal cycle using chain drive, belt drive, hub motors or friction drive. BLDC hub motors are a common modern design. The motor is built into the wheel hub itself, and the stator fixed solidly to the axle, and the magnets attached to and rotating with the wheel. The bicycle wheel hub is the motor. The power levels of motors used are influenced by available legal categories and are often, but not always limited to under 750 watts.
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