Atom ebikes are characterized by their "TS System" patented by BH Bikes, which integrates the battery in the diagonal tube, enabling the shape of a traditional frame. Its optimized design offers compact geometry characteristics. The 2019 e-MTB range incorporates the Boost 148x12 rear axle and high-end peripherals. The Trekking e-bike range integrates; high performance lights, racks, saddles and grips that meet the needs of our most demanding riders. The 2.8” LCD color display with USB port incorporates a new remote control in the 2019 range. see the ATOM eMTB bikes...
The LT or long travel line that Haibike is one of the most interesting developments in electric mountain biking in quite some time. I’ve chosen the FullSeven LT 4.0 because I wanted to show you another quality, low-cost option. The FullSeven line is built a little less aggressively than the AllMtn series, but still functions as a great all-around mountain bike for those riders who want to hit fire roads, and maybe the occasional single-track trail. The coolest thing about the LT line is that it costs exactly the same as the standard FullSeven line that comes with 120mm of travel. You can upgrade to 150mm on any FullSeven bike for no extra cost.
On mine I got the Topeak front and SKS rear mud guards, an Axiom rear rack, front and rear lights. They didn’t have a headlamp with the lumens I wanted, so Tommy the owner went ahead and ordered one for me! He was always available for any question I may have had through his mobile phone, and updated me with pictures showing me different possible setups to see if I would like it.
The sub has been awesome in giving me confidence, I got a Giant XTC from CL. and was going to order all the parts from Luna's Black Friday Sale. A couple of questions, I will have a bike shop remove the bottom bracket, but I am assuming the Bafang 750 with the 17 AH battery should be an easy install at that point (or is it)? I am thinking of having the bike shop install the motor too and I do the the rest. besides a pedal crank, Allen wrenches etc, what tools will I need? Any top rated videos to watch? Is the speed sensor worth it? What about the half twist vs. full twist vs thumb throttle? Color display,, etc. Since the bike has a 10-speed cassette, will that be good or bad (me thinks good). Any other thoughts or pointers? Should I order the stuff from Aliexpress or Ebay?
Electric mountain bikes have garnered a lot of attention for their ability to help riders go higher, further, and faster on the trail. As a result, there have been some impressive new eMTB models to hit the market in recent years, making it easier than ever to head off-road. Our favorite is the Haibike SDURO HardNine, which comes equipped with a 350-watt Bosch Performance CX drive and a 500 watt-hour battery. This gives it a range of up to 70 miles, along with a top speed of 20 mph, which is plenty fast on singletrack.
Cycling Plus is the manual for the modern road cyclist. Whether you're cycling weekly, an occasional new rider or a Tour de France fan you’ll find everything you need. Every issue is packed with expert reviews of the latest road bikes and gear, inspirational routes and rides, evocative features that take you inside every aspect of cycling and unmatched nutrition, fitness and training advice.
After you decide which style of e-bike you want, consider the class. In the US, there are three classes defined by the type of assist and how fast the motor will propel you. Most electric bikes sold are class 1 or 3. Class 1 bikes have a motor (max 750w) that assists while you're pedaling, up to 20 mph. Class 3, also known as “speed pedelec” can also have up to a 750w motor, but it can assist you up to 28mph. Both of those are allowed in most states and cities without license. Class 2 have throttles that don't require you to pedal to get a boost. They're allowed on most streets, bike lanes, and paths, but less popular than the other classes and not covered much here (because we still love to pedal and the greater distances pedal assist bikes can cover).
Electric mountain bikes (eMTBs) are relatively new on the scene and mountain bikers are freaking out. “They shouldn’t be allowed on our trails.” “They are going to ruin the sport.” It reminds me of when the first mountain bikes started popping up on trails and hikers were panicking with visions of crazed bikers running them over. Well, their fears never materialized and mountain bikes have become popular tools for exploring the outdoors responsibly.

E-bikes can also provide a source of exercise for individuals who have trouble exercising for an extended time (due to injury or excessive weight, for example) as the bike can allow the rider to take short breaks from pedaling and also provide confidence to the rider that they'll be able to complete the selected path without becoming too fatigued[58] or without having forced their knee joints too hard (people who need to use their knee joints without wearing them out unnecessarily may in some electric bikes adjust the level of motor assistance according to the terrain). A University of Tennessee study provides evidence that energy expenditure (EE) and oxygen consumption (VO2) for e-bikes are 24% lower than that for conventional bicycles, and 64% lower than for walking. Further, the study notes that the difference between e-bikes and bicycles are most pronounced on the uphill segments.[59] Reaching VO2 Max, can really help your body as a whole[60]. Professor Janet Lord of Birmingham University in the UK published a study that looked at older cyclists, ““The study looked at muscle mass, blood cholesterol, their VO2 Max, lung function, and in many of those measures we found they didn’t age! No loss of muscle, their bones were a little thin (but nothing like the general population), their blood pressure didn’t go up.[61]


Procycling brings you the colour, action and drama of the world's most spectacular sport in a glossy and dynamic magazine. It's the authoritative, worldwide voice of international professional road racing, distributed in every country where there are English-speaking fans. With exclusive features and spectacular photography, Procycling brings to life the complexities, rivalries and hardships of the European professional scene.
The Brose motor puts out 250 watts nominally, and can peak up to a max of 460 watts. That’s around half what the 2016 Specialized Turbo S road bike we tested last year develops, but that bike’s much-larger motor sits in the rear hub, which would massively compromise performance on a full-suspension mountain bike like this one. Spend up to the Expert or S-Works spec Turbo Levo and you get a motor that can peak up to 530 watts. 
Ethics aside, that’s not to say we don’t at least admire where the technology has taken us thus far – and where it appears to be heading- thanks to some of the best electric mountain bikes on the market today. Some, naturally, are more rugged and built to withstand greater beatings than others. While some feature a price tag similar to that of a new Harley-Davidson. Whatever the case, if the disposable income is there, as well as the integrity not to abuse the power these electric machines offer, then they’re certainly yours for the taking. Just have a look at our eight favorite picks below and see for yourself.
In the pursuit of speed, all trails lead to Camber. We designed it to be the ultimate speed-loving trail bike, which means that having equal efficiency both up and down the trail is an absolute must. To make sure of it, Cambers feature our fully active & independent FSR suspension with our Position-Sensitive Brain technology. So if your rides see you going big and going fast, the Camber is tailor-made for you.
There are various kinds and classifications of electric bikes on the market, but the more common type is the Class 1, or pedal assist, bikes which have motor units that are activated by pedaling and are limited to lower speeds. In the US, Class 1 electric bikes, the type tested and reviewed here, are limited to a top speed of 20 mph and their motors are designed with a speed governor to regulate this. These types of e-bikes resemble modern mountain bikes, but they have significant battery packs and small motor units integrated onto and into the frame design. The e-MTB pedal-assist motor is typically built around the bottom bracket and provides varying levels of pedaling "support" directly into the drivetrain while the cranks are turning. Most drive unit systems offer several support settings that provide pedal assistance between 25% and 100% of the user's pedaling input.
Great bike, especially for the price. After a few minor glitches, but working with an excellent customer service rep from Amazon, Gregg, we received the bike (basket had to be shipped later, it didn't come with it originally but all worked out well). I've used this several times, speed reaches 25 mph, powerful bike, can't believe the price. Easy to handle, I have no problems whatsoever with the kickstand but if it has to be physically carried, I let my husband do it, but as for getting it off the kickstand or back on, I have no issues. The only thing I didn't like was the seat, I found it to be uncomfortable so switched seats and bought a great sheepskin cover on Amazon for it. I don't know how long the charge will last, I've only used it a few miles at a time but no loss of power ... full review

For those who know the brand, Ducati makes lust-inspiring road motorcycles, covering the range from scramblers to naked bikes to sport bikes. They’ve topped podiums globally, appeared in too many movies to name, and in some cases have ended on display in art galleries. But like everyone in the motorcycle business, the company is challenged by global changes and is looking to capitalize on its valuable brand. Likely it was challenged to by its corporate overlords, as the Ducati company was acquired by Audi and hence VW in 2012.
The Ancheer folding electric mountain bike does have a few weird quirks. The first is the handlebar mounted battery. It saves space for the folding mechanism, but looks odd. Fortunately it has very little effect on handling because it is mounted so close the head tube’s pivot point. It does raise the center of gravity of the bike a bit, but the difference is small compared to how much you raise the bike’s center of gravity.
The Commencal Meta Power Race 650B+ was the best climber of the bunch. The bike had a comfortable climbing position, with a slightly longer reach than the competition, but the highlight was the Shimano Steps E8000 motor. The Shimano motor's power band extends for just a moment after the pedals stop turning, providing the rider with just a little more push to get over obstacles or carry speed when you stop pedaling for a second. This extended power was brief, but it made a huge difference when tackling technical uphill sections or playfully ripping berms or over rocks on the climbs. While it was agile and quicker handling, the Specialized Turbo Levo FSR Comp 6Fattie lost ground in this rating metric due to the somewhat abrupt pedal assist cutoff that occurred the moment you stop pedaling. This abrupt power cutoff caused awkward moves in slower technical uphill sections when jockeying pedals to avoid rock strikes. The HaiBike didn't climb as well as the Commencal, but it undeniably had traction for days and a motor that also extended the power band slightly beyond the last pedal stroke. The Trek Powerfly had a long wheelbase, reach, and chainstay length, giving the bike a long rear end that kept impressive traction while climbing as long as you kept your momentum, the overall length of the bike, however, made it a little tougher to negotiate in the tighter stuff.
The electric bike revolution has officially crossed into the arena of off-road motorbikes. For those who prefer riding in nature, Cake introduced a product which not only respects the environment but other riders, as well. Cake’s Kalk is a silent off-road motorbike that releases no emissions into the atmosphere. Additionally, its electric motor means no gear changing or clutching — a silent motorbike that won’t detract from the experience of others. Perhaps the best part is Cake avoided any sacrifice in performance. The Kalk reaches speeds of fifty miles per hour and features three distinct driving modes: Discover, Explore, and Excite.
The AWOL is equal parts versatility and durability, all in one perfectly balanced package. Whether it's navigating through the urban jungle as your commuter rig or strapping on panniers to explore the back roads less traveled on a bikepacking adventure, the AWOL relishes either challenge. So go ahead, plan your next adventure or see where you daily commute will take you. With the AWOL, the only thing holding you back is your imagination.
Generally speaking, e-bikes are bicycles with a battery-powered “assist” that comes via pedaling or, in some cases, a throttle. When you push the pedals on a pedal-assist e-bike, a small motor engages and gives you a boost, so you can zip up hills and cruise over tough terrain without gassing yourself. Called “pedalecs,” they feel just like conventional bikes—but better, says Ed Benjamin, senior managing director at the consulting firm eCycleElectric. “You control your speed with your feet, like with a regular bike,” he says. “You just feel really powerful and accelerate easily.”

It’s important to note that because this is an electric bike, not all trails are legally accessible. You’ll need to check with the federal, state, or local land management agency in charge of the trails you want to ride to see if it’s possible. You may also face some resistance from holier-than-though cyclist types. Those guys are best avoided anyway, and the glowing LEDs on the down tube should at least help you identify them quicker. 

In our head to head range test, the Specialized took the win by travelling 20.6 miles and 3,455 vertical feet, 10% farther than the Trek at 18.6 miles and 3,076 vertical feet, 15% more distant than the HaiBike at 17.8 miles and 3,215 vertical feet, and 17% more than the Commencal at 17.1 miles and 3,100 vertical feet. Each of these electric mountain bikes can take you a long way out on the trail, but the Specialized uses its power the most efficiently and can keep you out to play for longer than the competition.
Frame Ultralight 6061 T6 Aluminum Pedals Priority Alloy Platform, Sealed Fork Ultralight 6061 T6 Aluminum Front Light Priority fixed, 700lm, 3x CREE R4 led, wired to bike battery Rims WTB ST TCS 2.0 27.5"/650b - Tubeless Ready Rear Light Priority fixed, wired to bike battery Front Hub Priority 15mm Through Axle, Quick Release Seatpost 31.6 Alloy Micro-adjust, 300mm (17"), 350mm (19"/21") Rear Hub enviolo Trekking Group (n380) Belt Gates Carbon Drive with Centertrack CDX 122T Spokes Stainless Steel, Black, 14g front, 13g rear Saddle WTB Pure or Selle Royale Gel Shifter enviolo Trekking (c8) Handlebar Stem Alloy, 6 degree 80mm17", 90mm 17" and 19" OR 70mm, 35 degree Brakes Tektro HD-M285 Hydraulic Disc Dual Piston Handlebar Alloy, 31.8 clamp, 6 degree rise, 630mm Grips Velo, ergonomic dual density comfort Headset Alloy Sealed Crankset Priority Electric, 170mm (17"), 175mm (19"/21") Tires WTB Horizon 650B PLUS 47M/M Tubeless Ready Front Sprocket 50t Gates CDX Fenders Aluminum+Plastic Rear Cog 24t Gates CDX Kickstand Alloy Rear Mounted Kickstand Included! Motor Bosch Active Line Plus Color Gloss White or Gloss Charcoal Battery Bosch PowerPack 400 Sizes 17", 19" and 21" Display Bosch Purion Weight Approx. 45lbs
With more and more compelling reasons to experience the benefits of e-bikes, we’ve put together this special issue packed with information on how to get the most from an e-bike, a guide to the main motors and batteries and a showcase of the latest models on the market. So read on, watch the accompanying videos on our YouTube channel and book a test ride to try one for yourself. We guarantee you’ll be hooked.
There are many places in the U.S. where you can legally and responsibly ride e-MTB's, and take it from us, they are a heck of a lot of fun. Check with local land management agencies to find out where you are allowed to use an electric mountain bike before taking to the trails. One thing we do know, e-MTB's can be used on any trails that are legal for motorized use, so we took advantage of the wealth of OHV trails in the greater Lake Tahoe area for our testing purposes and had more fun doing it than any of us expected.
Alright guys and gals, it’s 2018 and there are more choices for electric mountain bikes than ever before. Nearly every major brand has significantly expanded their lineups. This means that you’ll get better bikes at better price points. Still not sure if you should upgrade to an electric mountain bike? It’s the 21st century people! As the crew at Bulls says, “it’s not cheating, it’s just more fun.” The point of these bikes is not ruin other people’s fun by going at unsafe speeds, it’s to make your ride easier and your day last longer! Check out our top 10 electric mountain bikes for 2018 to see which bikes will get you out on the trails for thousands of miles.
For an overview of Stark Drive Electric Bike, its features and our story click above. Our passion for biking and our determination to take electric bikes mainstream have driven us to create the world’s most affordable electric bike. As technology improves, so will Stark Drive with the caveat that we will always offer the most affordable electric bikes in the world.

Alright guys and gals, it’s 2018 and there are more choices for electric mountain bikes than ever before. Nearly every major brand has significantly expanded their lineups. This means that you’ll get better bikes at better price points. Still not sure if you should upgrade to an electric mountain bike? It’s the 21st century people! As the crew at Bulls says, “it’s not cheating, it’s just more fun.” The point of these bikes is not ruin other people’s fun by going at unsafe speeds, it’s to make your ride easier and your day last longer! Check out our top 10 electric mountain bikes for 2018 to see which bikes will get you out on the trails for thousands of miles.
I'm looking to leverage the Cycle to Work Scheme and have been looking around for an e-bike to purchase. I used a lot of the information provided here and have come to the conclusion that the Kreiger from Woosh meets all my needs. 95% of the time the bike will be used to commute to and from work, the rest of the time I'll probably be rising it around the park with the kids. The thing I like about this bike is that it pretty much comes with everything (except the lock) that you'd need to get going. I guess, if I really wanted to, I could upgrade the Bafang motor on this to a BBS02 with a better battery.
The box looked rough. Lots of little digs and dents. When I opened the box, the contents were very well packed. Mine did show that it took a good hit to the headset stem as the spacers where shoved and the clear tape was all bunched up and the one spacer was almost at the edge. After taking the tape off, cleaning all the tape residue off everything went together super easy. I used the included multi tool to do most of the assembly. I just needed a wrench for the peddles.
For Canyon’s first e-mtb the Spectal:ON 8.0 hasn’t simply hit the trail running, it’s power up it in Boost mode. The geometry, sizing and handling are all on point, and details like the adjustable geometry, odd wheel sizes, tyre specific rim widths and short cranks make Canyon a market leader rather than a brand that’s simply playing catch up. With a Fox 36 Fit4 fork the Spectral:ON 8.0 would probably have won the test, the more basic Grip damper never having the measure of Canyon’s superb rear suspension.
With an electric mountain bike (or e-MTB) that gives you assistance up to 25kph, it’s possible to pack twice as much riding into the same amount of time. Those five great trails that you normally ride after work can now be ridden twice. That boring singletrack climb on your lunchtime loop suddenly becomes the highlight of your day. With the extra push from the motor it’s easy to double the distance covered, or do the same ride in half the time.

The final appearance of both the FullSeven and the Yamaha PW-X on the countdown. This top notch 27.5″ wheeled shred sled is another perfect fire road rider for the intermediate rider looking to step their game up. One thing I didn’t mention before but I wanted to let you all know is that I think the FullSeven geometry this year allows the bikes to be more accessible to riders of all sizes. Traditionally, most companies offer one or two options for female riders. Haibike does offer the FullLife models, but the FullSeven series by and large offers better components and a very similar geometry. I think that’s great.

Remember the freedom, fun, and sense of accomplishment that your first bike gave you? Well, these days, kids can share that excitement at even earlier age with our collection of kids' bikes and equipment. From toddler-friendly walk bikes to pint-sized helmets, we have everything you need to get your little ones away from the screen and out on their bikes.


In Stock & Free Shipping Now! LIGHTWEIGHT FOLDING FRAME: This e-bike is easy to fold and save more space for storage. It weighs a mere 26.5lbs, easy to carry with one hand. Provided with Both good anti-pressure ability and lightweight frame 15 MPH & 12 MILE RANGE: This electric bike with a 350-watt high-speed motor can achieve the top speed of 25 km/h, powered by 36V 6Ah battery, with a range of 25km means your e-bike commute just easier APP SUPPORTING SYSTEM: This foldable bike has Bluetooth System (above Android 4.3/IOS 8); APP Speed Setting; Motor locking (original password 123456);...
While the first functional battery was developed in the year 1800 by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta, a practical battery would not be seen for several decades yet. By the end of the 19th century, practical and portable batteries were more widely available, this finally freeing the electric motor to be used in a wide new array of applications. It might come as a surprise, but the electric motor, battery, and a bicycle were first paired as far back as the 1890s. It would be approximately 100 years later that electric bicycle development finally entered the mainstream, but the technology and concept behind the electric bike were all in place generations ago.

Our job is to make sure you enjoy your EVELO for many years to come. That’s why they are backed by a 4-year/20,000-mile warranty – double the industry average. If a problem comes up, you are just one call away from our U.S.-based customer service. Combined with our network of partner bike shops around the country for on-the-ground support, you are covered for anything a bike path can throw at you.


An anti-theft radio GPS that mounts to standard bottle cage bosses and can locate within 9 feet, it runs on the Verizon network and costs $5/mo in addition to the hardware. Integrated vibration sensing alarm sends an automated text message alerting you anytime the bike has been "locked" using the companion smartphone application (Android or iOS)...
Forward-thinking parents are giving up thier SUVs and opting for electric cargo bikes for getting the family around. Cargo bikes are seeing a resurgence in popularity with the rise of electric conversion systems that convert these awesome people movers into family toting electric vehicles. One year ago the Wall Street Journal ran a full page article in their weekend edition entitled The New Station Wagon. Since then the trend for...
This bike is named the GSD because with it you can Get Stuff Done. Twenty-inch wheels keep the center of gravity low so heavy payloads—it's rated up to 400lbs—are easy to balance and a short (for a cargo bike) 70-inch wheelbase, similar to a standard single bike, make the GSD easy to maneuver. Designed with the urban commuter in mind, the bike can easily break down to 60 percent of its original size to fit into the back of a car and the rear rack doubles as a stand that allows it to stand upright to minimize space inside tight apartments. Put two child seats on the back and take the family along, or drop the seat and let you kid take the bike out himself—anyone from 4'10" to 6'5" can ride this bike. Last but not least, the GSD gives you the option of adding a second battery to extend your range up to about 150 miles on a single charge.

Prodeco V5 Phantom X2 8 Speed Folding Electric Bicycle is constructed and tested in the USA. Travelling on a bike is sometimes very comfortable to get some fresh air. This bike is the one that is designed by keeping your needs in mind. It allows you to fold the bike in a compact form and can carry it in the office, basements, flats, etc. The Prodeco V5 Phantom X2 bicycle has avid BB7 disc brakes, 500-watt motor, 12Ah battery, and rigid frame. The manufacturers offer a lifetime warranty on the frame and 2 years on components.

Whether you're riding in the backcountry or racing enduro, you need a bike that's capable and efficient. After all, to ride 'all mountain' necessitates riding the entire mountain. That's why our Enduro line of all mountain bikes, both in 650b and 29er options, come equipped with loads of travel, lightweight constructions, and geometries that can handle themselves on anything from downhill tracks to stomach-wrenching climbs.
Just take a look at the Kenevo and you know it wants to go fast. Downhill. And probably destroy every turn it sees. The tank-like aesthetic and aggressive geometry does indeed allude to the bikes intended purpose. If downhills are your thing, the burly Kenevo is your friend: it’ll get you to the top with ease but, once the seat drops, you won’t be able to stop it. There’s not a lot more to be said about it – the best in its class…

Alec wants your wheels to be strong and true when they leave our doors, and a well-built wheel will stay that way for years.  Alec would rather be outdoors, but he comes in to E-BikeKit each day to make sure that you’ve got what you need to make your own outdoor adventures happen. A day when Alec can keep you rolling down the road and enjoying your bike is a...
With over a decade of experience as an advertising executive, Mark is certain that the market will accept the electric bike and is here to make sure it happens. Mark has an impressive list of former clients in industries like pharmaceuticals, convenience stores, community banks, floor coverings, visitors’ bureaus, resorts and Location Based Services (LBS). When he’s not on Facebook, tweeting or learning how to leverage the latest viral marketing techniques,...
For those who know the brand, Ducati makes lust-inspiring road motorcycles, covering the range from scramblers to naked bikes to sport bikes. They’ve topped podiums globally, appeared in too many movies to name, and in some cases have ended on display in art galleries. But like everyone in the motorcycle business, the company is challenged by global changes and is looking to capitalize on its valuable brand. Likely it was challenged to by its corporate overlords, as the Ducati company was acquired by Audi and hence VW in 2012.

It’s important to note that because this is an electric bike, not all trails are legally accessible. You’ll need to check with the federal, state, or local land management agency in charge of the trails you want to ride to see if it’s possible. You may also face some resistance from holier-than-though cyclist types. Those guys are best avoided anyway, and the glowing LEDs on the down tube should at least help you identify them quicker. 
When riding a normal bike through creek crossings, and rock gardens, I typically stop pedaling often to avoid pedal strikes, and to maneuver the bike. This approach is not compatible with the Turbo Levo’s weight. On it, continual pedaling was necessary, but the big tires and well-damped suspension enabled me to roll over obstacles I’d typically try to avoid, with the motor helping me power over them smoothly. To make this constant pedaling possible without pedal strikes, the bottom bracket is moved higher and Specialized has spec’d 170mm cranks that are a tad shorter than normal. 
While we’re on this thread, I want to go ahead and throw in the most tricked-out shred sled in the AllMtn line. Haibike spared no expense wit the XDURO AllMtn 10.0. It’s a premium bike, and here is why. A Fox Factory 34 front suspension fork with 150mm of travel and Kashima coating starts things off. That’s followed by a 20-speed drivetrain brought to you by Shimano Deore XT Shadow Plus. Then you’ve got DT Swiss rims, KS LEV-DX dropper seatpost, Magura MT7 HD brakes, and a Yamaha PW-X motor. ‘Nuff. Said.

The demands for the best eMTB are high. It has to climb efficiently, be comfortable to ride, be very stable and composed, yet, on top of that, be a lot of fun on the descents. Also, its integration, ease of use, and motor performance must set the benchmark. Although all the motors perform at a high level, the Bosch Performance CX is unable to keep up with the competition due to the high internal resistance it generates at over 25 km/h. It’s a pity for the Moustache Samedi Race 11: it’s by far the best Bosch bike we’ve ever ridden, but it’s slowed down by the motor. With a price tag of € 5,999, the Trek Powerfly 9 LT Plus is clearly the cheapest bike in this group test. It climbs very efficiently, but is held back on the downhills by a poor choice of tyres and slow handling – you should consider a tyre upgrade in your budget. The Haibike XDURO Nduro descends with the stability of a freight train, but it has to let the competition overtake it when going back up. With its long 180 mm travel and high weight (24.54 kg), it even feels cumbersome on the downhills.
Range is a key consideration with e-bikes, and is affected by factors such as motor efficiency, battery capacity, efficiency of the driving electronics, aerodynamics, hills and weight of the bike and rider.[36][37] Some manufacturers, such as the Canadian BionX or American Vintage Electric Bikes,[38] have the option of using regenerative braking, the motor acts as a generator to slow the bike down prior to the brake pads engaging.[39] This is useful for extending the range and the life of brake pads and wheel rims. There are also experiments using fuel cells. e.g. the PHB. Some experiments have also been undertaken with super capacitors to supplement or replace batteries for cars and some SUVS. E-bikes developed in Switzerland in the late 1980s for the Tour de Sol solar vehicle race came with solar charging stations but these were later fixed on roofs and connected so as to feed into the electric mains.[40] The bicycles were then charged from the mains, as is common today. While ebike batteries were produced mainly by bigger companies in past, many small to medium companies have started using innovative new methods for creating more durable batteries. State of the art, custom built automated precision CNC spot welding machines[41] created 18650 battery packs[42] are commonly used among Do-it-yourself ebike makers.
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