Over several months, our team of four professional mountain bike testers rode each of the electric mountain bikes in our test selection on a variety of trails and terrain in a range of weather conditions. We had each tester ride each of the bikes numerous times, often riding the different models back to back for the sake of comparison. We didn't go easy on them. Instead, we treated them all as if they were our own, putting them all through the wringer to identify their strengths and weaknesses. We scrutinized every aspect of each e-bike's performance and scored them all on several rating metrics, e-bike controls, downhill performance, uphill performance, power output, and distance range. Each metric are described in greater detail below. It is important to note that during our testing our impressions of these e-bikes changed dramatically. Our first impressions didn't exactly stick. It was essential for us to test the different models head-to-head and make direct comparisons to flush out the differences. For example, everyone was initially a little underwhelmed with the Specialized's power and more excited about the Haibike, but after hundreds of miles of testing our impressions changed. We go into more detail on this below.

Of course, there is room for improvement. There is no handlebar mounted digital display and the only way to tell your speed is to mount a phone or bike computer to the bars. To see your battery life, you have to stop and look to the side of the frame (or risk crashing). The climbing performance was hampered by the drive unit's more abrupt cutoff when the pedals stopped turning. The charger connection is poorly designed and located: we spent a fair amount of time carefully removing mud to get the bike to charge. Overall though, the Specialized still proved to be the test team's favorite for its versatility and well-rounded performance. We loved it and we think you will too, read the full review to find out more about our Editor's Choice Award winning e-MTB.
Automated Transit Networks (ATN), and the small-vehicle subset of Personal Rapid Transit (PRT), are emerging technologies that can help solve the related problems of congestion, dependence on foreign oil, and planetary climate disruption. ATN/PRT offers clean, quiet, responsive public transit with automated non-stop service available 24 hours a day. In addition to these service benefits, PRT costs far less to build and operate than other transit options ¯ and is safer than walking and cycling on nearby busy streets.

It’s probable that GM was hoping for more press for its announcement of the same day as Musk’s interview going live, that it had actually built and was going to sell a pair of electric bikes. It launched a $10,000 naming contest. The bikes were built in-house by GM, including engineers who had worked on the Bolt. The Director of General Motors Urban Mobility Solutions, Hannah Parish said:
The Men's Tarmac doesn't do one thing well, it does everything exceptionally—which is why it's been ridden to victory in all three Grand Tours. The new Tarmac's advanced materials and aerodynamic design add a modern edge to the lively character of a classic race bike, while its Rider-First Engineered™ design ensures that the Tarmac sprints, corners, and descends with uniform excellence across every size.

A good hardtail can be your answer to both the perfect trail bike and the perfect on-road bike. Their lighter weight also means a faster ride off-road. Haibike offers a full range of 27.5 and 29er wheel size bikes for trails and cross riding. The XDURO and SDURO lines mean a selection of drive systems and a range of power that only Haibike offers.
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Basically, there is no reason to ride an eMTB with less than 130 mm of travel. With classic bikes, more travel usually means both less efficiency and poorer climbing characteristics, but this is not true with eMTBs – at least not up to a certain point. The best example is the Specialized Turbo Levo, which with its 135 mm of travel at the rear handles much better than most of the other, longer travel bikes in the group test. Also, eMTBs with suspension travel of 180 mm or more are often noticeably less efficient, as clearly exemplified in this test by the Haibike XDURO Nduro. It climbs a lot slower than other bikes using the same motor and the same level of assistance, an experience you will find with almost all other long-travel bikes from other manufacturers. The exception is the BULLS E-CORE EVO EN Di2: in direct comparison, it climbs a lot more efficiently, even though it also offers 180 mm of travel. The ideal compromise between uphill and downhill performance usually lies somewhere between 130 and 160 mm of travel.
Controllers for brushless motors: E-bikes require high initial torque and therefore models that use brushless motors typically have Hall sensor commutation for speed and angle measurement. An electronic controller provides assistance as a function of the sensor inputs, the vehicle speed and the required force. The controllers generally allow input by means of potentiometer or Hall Effect twist grip (or thumb-operated lever throttle), closed-loop speed control for precise speed regulation, protection logic for over-voltage, over-current and thermal protection. Bikes with a pedal assist function typically have a disc on the crank shaft featuring a ring of magnets coupled with a Hall sensor giving rise to a series of pulses, the frequency of which is proportional to pedaling speed. The controller uses pulse width modulation to regulate the power to the motor. Sometimes support is provided for regenerative braking but infrequent braking and the low mass of bicycles limits recovered energy. An implementation is described in an application note for a 200 W, 24 V Brushless DC (BLDC) motor.[43]
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It’s hard to ignore the growing popularity of electric bikes. Commuters and hybrid riders have already embraced the technology, but what about when it comes to mountain shredders? MTB fans are certainly beginning to realise the benefits of electric – an electric mountain bike can give you all the thrills you want from a normal MTB but with the extra power you need to get back to the top and give the trail another go.
Because e-bikes are capable of greater speeds for longer periods of time than standard bikes, you want extra control. Wider tires provide traction and some bump absorption with little penalty. You also want strong brakes to slow you (and all that extra weight) easily. It's worth looking at the quality of the brakes and investing in bikes with better ones if you can.
For Canyon’s first e-mtb the Spectal:ON 8.0 hasn’t simply hit the trail running, it’s power up it in Boost mode. The geometry, sizing and handling are all on point, and details like the adjustable geometry, odd wheel sizes, tyre specific rim widths and short cranks make Canyon a market leader rather than a brand that’s simply playing catch up. With a Fox 36 Fit4 fork the Spectral:ON 8.0 would probably have won the test, the more basic Grip damper never having the measure of Canyon’s superb rear suspension.
There are various kinds and classifications of electric bikes on the market, but the more common type is the Class 1, or pedal assist, bikes which have motor units that are activated by pedaling and are limited to lower speeds. In the US, Class 1 electric bikes, the type tested and reviewed here, are limited to a top speed of 20 mph and their motors are designed with a speed governor to regulate this. These types of e-bikes resemble modern mountain bikes, but they have significant battery packs and small motor units integrated onto and into the frame design. The e-MTB pedal-assist motor is typically built around the bottom bracket and provides varying levels of pedaling "support" directly into the drivetrain while the cranks are turning. Most drive unit systems offer several support settings that provide pedal assistance between 25% and 100% of the user's pedaling input.

The two most common types of hub motors used in electric bicycles are brushed and brushless. Many configurations are available, varying in cost and complexity; direct-drive and geared motor units are both used. An electric power-assist system may be added to almost any pedal cycle using chain drive, belt drive, hub motors or friction drive. BLDC hub motors are a common modern design. The motor is built into the wheel hub itself, and the stator fixed solidly to the axle, and the magnets attached to and rotating with the wheel. The bicycle wheel hub is the motor. The power levels of motors used are influenced by available legal categories and are often, but not always limited to under 750 watts.
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